The Company generates revenue from collaboration and license agreements for the development and commercialization of its products. Collaboration and license agreements may include non-refundable upfront license fees, partial or complete reimbursement of research and development costs, contingent consideration payments based on the achievement of defined collaboration objectives and royalties on sales of commercialized products. To date, the Company has not recognized revenue from sales of its product candidates.
The Company recognizes revenue when all four of the following criteria have been met: (i) collectability is reasonably assured; (ii) delivery has occurred or services have been rendered; (iii) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; and (iv) the fee is fixed or determinable. Revenue under collaboration and license arrangements is recognized based on performance requirements of the contract. Collectability is assessed based on evaluation of payment criteria as stated in the contract as well as the creditworthiness of the collaboration partner. Determination of whether delivery has occurred or services rendered are based on management’s evaluation of the performance obligations as stated in the contract and progress made against those obligations. Evidence of arrangement is deemed to exist upon execution of the contract. Fees are considered fixed and determinable when the amount payable to the Company is no longer subject to any acceptance, refund rights or other contingencies that would alter the fixed nature of the fees charged for the deliverables.
License and collaboration agreements may contain multiple elements as evaluated under Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 605-25, Revenue Recognition- Multiple-Element Arrangements, including agreements to provide research and development services, and manufacturing and commercialization services, grants of licenses to intellectual property rights and know-how, as well as participation in development and/or commercialization committees. Each deliverable under the agreement is evaluated to determine whether it qualifies as a separate unit of accounting based on whether the deliverable has standalone value to the customer. The arrangement’s consideration that is fixed or determinable is then allocated to each separate unit of accounting based on the following hierarchy: (i) vendor-specific objective evidence of the fair value of the deliverable, if it exists; (ii) third-party evidence of selling price, if vendor-specific objective evidence is not available; or (iii) the best estimate of selling price if neither vendor-specific objective evidence or third-party evidence is available.
Upfront payments for licenses are evaluated to determine if the licensee can obtain standalone value from the license separate from the value of the research and development services and other deliverables in the arrangement to be provided by the Company. The assessment of multiple-element arrangements also requires judgment in order to determine the allocation of revenue to each deliverable and the appropriate period of time over which the revenue should be recognized. If the Company determines that the license does not have standalone value separate from the research and development services, the license and the services are combined as one unit of accounting and upfront payments are recorded initially as deferred revenue in the consolidated balance sheet. Revenue is then recognized on a straight-line basis over an estimated performance period that is consistent with the term of performance obligations, unless the Company determines there is a discernible pattern of performance other than straight-line, in which case the Company uses a proportionate performance method to recognize the revenue over the estimated performance period. If the license is determined to have standalone value, then the allocated consideration is recorded as revenue when the license is delivered.
License and collaboration agreements may also contain milestone payments that become due upon the achievement of certain milestones. The Company applies ASC 605-28, Revenue Recognition—Milestone Method. Under the milestone method, payments that are contingent upon achievement of a substantive milestone are recognized in the period in which the milestone is achieved. Substantive milestones are defined as an event that can only be achieved based on the Company’s performance and there is substantive uncertainty about whether the event will be achieved at the inception of the arrangement. Events that are contingent only on the passage of time or only on counterparty performance are not considered milestones subject to this guidance. Further, for the milestone to be considered substantive, the amounts received must relate solely to prior performance, be reasonable relative to all of the deliverables and payment terms within the agreement and commensurate with the Company’s performance to achieve the milestone.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred and consist of salaries and benefits, lab supplies and facility costs, and fees paid to others that conduct certain research and development activities on the Company’s behalf. Amounts incurred in connection with collaboration and license agreements are also included in research and development expense.